19TH CENTURY ARTISTS
In Europe and the United States, the 19th century witnessed major social and technological upheavals, prompted in part by the Industrial Revolution and correlating trends such as urbanization, poor working and living conditions, and territorial expansion by emerging global superpowers. In this period, artistic patronage shifted increasingly towards the capitalist bourgeoisie and national academies, with a rising profile for art dealers and critics. The hub of Western artistic activity was Paris, and the French Academy and Salon represented the establishment, favoring Neoclassicism at the beginning of the century and later Romanticism. Broad defiance of the Salon system swelled in the second half of the century with provocative works, the new styles of Impressionism and Post-Impressionism, and the birth of the concepts of modernism and the avant-garde.